Keys to understanding the effect of vitamins on health

    We offer you a guide so that you know the different vitamins and what function, effects, benefits and properties they contribute to health. Here you have information, data and keys

    Vitamins are substances that are found in small amounts in food and are necessary for cell function, growth, and normal development.

    There are 13 vitamins. On the one hand, there are the fat-soluble ones, which are A, D, K and E, that is, those that dissolve in the body’s fats. This type is stored in the liver and fatty tissues, so it is not necessary to take them daily.

    And, on the other hand, the water-soluble vitamins of group B (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12) and vitamin C, soluble in water. Unlike fat-soluble ones, these are easy to eliminate from the body and are not stored, so experts recommend maintaining their intake constantly.

    To avoid a deficit in both groups of vitamins and to learn more about how it affects health, Melio’s medical group has prepared a guide on them.

    Vitamin A or retinol

    According to the authors, it strengthens the immune system, protects vision, the proper development of bones and teeth, the health of the skin and mucous membranes.

    This vitamin has a high antioxidant power and is essential for embryonic growth during pregnancy.

    It is present in dairy products, egg yolks, oily fish and, in very high quantities, in the liver of animals. It is also found in the form of ?-carotene (a group of red, orange and yellow pigments) in carrots, tomatoes, spinach, lettuce, etc.

    How does it affect your deficit?

    Growth retardation
    Alterations in menstrual cycles.
    Increased susceptibility to infections.
    Skin problems (hyperkeratosis).
    Its excess can cause headache, fatigue, irritability, dizziness, gastric disturbances, hydrocephalus, edema, among others.

    Vitamin B

    Within the group of vitamin B, experts assure that B9 and B12 are the most absent and generates important health problems.

    B12 vitamin

    From Melio they explain that this vitamin is essential for the formation of red blood cells, the maintenance of the central nervous system and the generation of energy.

    However, its absorption is conditioned by a treatment based on drugs such as omeprazole.

    “For this vitamin to be absorbed by the body, it needs the acidic PH of the stomach. So, drugs such as omeprazole inhibit the production of this acid and prevent the absorption of the vitamin, “explains Íñigo Uriarte, from Melio’s medical team.

    It is produced only by bacteria in the colon, ingested by animals, so it can be obtained through meat or fish and, to a lesser extent, in eggs, dairy and shellfish.

    How does it affect your deficit?

    Pernicious anemia (low level of red blood cells). It is characterized by paleness, fatigue, weight loss and irregular functioning of the nervous system.

    Vitamin B9 or folate

    It is involved in the synthesis of nucleic acids (stores and expresses genetic information), the growth and development of the nervous system.

    It also participates in embryonic development, so supplementation is recommended for pregnant women, indicate from Melio.

    “It does not mean that a very complete diet is not going to be enough,” says Íñigo Uriarte.

    In addition, vitamin B9 is involved, along with B12, in the metabolism of homocysteine, a chemical that the body produces to generate protein later. If the levels of this substance are high, they are associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases.

    It is present in green leafy vegetables, eggs, milk, liver, and citrus fruits. It is important to know that, when cooked, more than 50% of this vitamin can be lost in the cooking water.

    How does it affect your deficit?

    Megaloblastic anemia (similar to that caused by B12 deficiency).
    Memory problems.
    Congenital malformations, such as alterations in the fetus.
    Increased risk of developing diseases such as diabetes, autism, or leukemia.
    Vitamin B1 or thiamine
    It is found in whole grains, nuts, brewer’s yeast, legumes, in meat, milk, eggs, and fish. The authors warn that it is “very water soluble, so it can get lost in the cooking water.” In addition, compounds in herbal teas, coffee and raw fish can inactivate it. Alcohol, on the other hand, slows its absorption.

    How does it affect your deficit?

    It can lead to neuronal diseases such as Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy or Beriberi.

    Vitamin B2 or riboflavin

    From Melio they consider that it is necessary to keep the skin, the lining of the digestive tract and blood cells in good condition. It is found in liver and pork, oily fish (sardines), cheese, egg yolk, almonds, lentils, and spinach.

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